The author is a consultant medical writer living in New Jersey Disclosure: The author reports that she has no commercial or financial relationships in regard to this article.
For more up to date analysis of the Social implications of medical issues of Brexit for health and social care, see our latest update. Health is not an area of significant EU competence; its role is by and large limited to supporting member states in their health endeavours.
It is widely acknowledged that the NHS is currently struggling Social implications of medical issues recruit and retain permanent staff — inthere was a shortfall of 5. Similar problems exist in the social care sector, which has an estimated vacancy rate of 5. High turnover is also an issue, with an overall turnover rate of Until the UK extracts itself from its obligations under EU treaties, the policy on freedom of movement remains unchanged; however, given the current shortfalls being experienced in both the health and social care sectors the government must clarify its intentions on the ability of EU nationals to work in health and social care roles in the UK, not least to avoid EU staff who are currently working in the NHS deciding to leave to work in other countries.
We endorse these views but would go further: Where immigration increases the population overall, this usually results in additional people needing NHS treatment. However, the average use of health services by immigrants and visitors appears to be lower than that of people born in the United Kingdom, which may be partly due to the fact that immigrants and visitors are, on average, younger Steventon and Bardsley However, there is a lack of reliable data on the use of health services by immigrants and visitors, so it is impossible to make a robust estimate.
Under EU rules, people who come from elsewhere in the EU to live in the UK, or who leave the UK to live in another EU country, have access to health care on the same basis as nationals of that country.
Estimates differ among the available sources. However, there are around 1. There are concerns that the referendum result will mean that UK pensioners currently living elsewhere in the EU may return, increasing pressures on health and social care services. With regard to the treatment of visitors from the EU in the UK and vice versa, the government should negotiate new reciprocal agreements such agreements already exist with some non-EU countries or alternatively seek to continue existing arrangements.
Working time directive One of the most contentious pieces of EU legislation affecting the NHS is the European Working Time Directive, which was introduced to support the health and safety of workers by limiting the maximum amount of time that employees in any sector can work to 48 hours each week, as well as setting minimum requirements for rest periods and annual leave.
The directive allows doctors to opt out of the hour limit the UK is one of the few countries to make use of the opt-out ; some specialties have been concerned that the hour limit affects training, and a Royal College of Surgeons RCS review of the directive called for more widespread use of the opt-out Independent Working Time Regulations Taskforce If the government decides to repeal or amend the working time regulations the UK law enacting the EU directivethis would have implications for NHS employment contracts and require significant changes to the Agenda for Change pay framework.
As the relevant EU directives have already been incorporated into UK law, the government would need to repeal or amend the law if it wished to reverse current arrangements. However, this will depend on the agreement the UK reaches with the EU on their future trading relationship.
Overall, it seems unlikely that leaving the EU will have a significant impact on NHS procurement and competition regulation. Regulation of medicines and clinical trials EU legislation provides a harmonised approach to medicines regulation across the EU member states.
The UK is currently part of the centralised authorisation system, which is operated by the European Medicines Agencybased in London. The EMA is responsible for the scientific evaluation of human and veterinary medicines developed by pharmaceutical companies for use in the EU.
However, this deals with national authorisations intended for marketing only in the UK. If this is not the case, however, pharmaceutical companies may need to apply to the MHRA for authorisation for any medicines they wish to supply to the UK.
While clinical trials are currently carried out on a national level, regulations due to take effect in will harmonise arrangements across the EU with the aim of creating a single entry point for companies that wish to carry out trials of new drugs on patients in different countries.
During the referendum campaign, concerns were expressed by some in the pharmaceutical industry that leaving the EU would result in the UK losing out on some trials that might otherwise benefit patients as we would no longer be part of the harmonised procedure. These facilitate the rapid sharing of information and technical expertise in response to potential pandemics, communicable diseases and other cross-border health threats.
Recent examples of such collaboration include the H1N1 pandemic and efforts to tackle anti-microbial resistance AMR. Collaboration across the EU has also enabled the UK to further its scientific research agenda, through our ability to access both European research talent and important sources of funding.
There are also other formal and informal networks across Europe — for example for some rare diseases, where the low numbers affected make it beneficial to work across the EU — that may be affected.
Members of the academic and medical communities have already expressed serious concerns about the impact of leaving the EU on the future of science and research in the UK see, for example, Lechler ; Mossialos et al Nobel Prize winner Professor Sir Paul Nurse, Chief Executive of the Francis Crick Institute, has warned that Brexit could be a disaster for British science because of its impact on the free movement of researchers across Europe and on the ability of UK researchers to attract research funding Ghosh We share these concerns and would argue that both issues should be prioritised in the forthcoming negotiations.
Although leading figures from the campaign have distanced themselves from these claims since the referendum result was announced, voters are unlikely to forget them.
In the long term, the most important influence on NHS funding will be the performance of the economy. If these warnings prove to be correct and cuts in public spending follow, then the implications for a service already struggling to live within its existing budget would be significant.
The NHS would also be affected by other consequences of economic instability. For example, a prolonged decline in the value of sterling would increase inflation, leading to higher prices for some drugs and other goods and services the NHS purchases.ABORTION: Medical and Social Aspects Warren M.
Hern, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. originally published in Encyclopedia of Marriage and the Family, Volume I David Levinson.
Still, chronic marijuana use may also contribute to the development of mental health issues, as well as lung and heart disease. And marijuana can be addictive. Although it rarely (if ever) causes death, it can cause many social effects.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The paper shows how social value creation and business models are interrelated in the context of the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) business formation.
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF MEDICAL ISSUES Dr. Stephen Ulrich August 24, Outline I. What is Spinal Cord Injury a. Medical definition of Spinal Cord Injury b. Spinal Cord Injury Statistics II.
Psycho social implications of Spinal Cord Injury III. Research and Spinal Cord Injury c. Project A d. Project B IV. Community based groups e.
Project 1 i. Like most mental health and social services providers, social workers face a number of legal and ethical issues throughout their careers. They must make difficult decisions regarding treatment issues, maintain professional boundaries and develop awareness of value conflicts.
Research References. The following references are selected from publications within the past five years. These articles were selected to demonstrate the range of social work research related to poverty, its causes, and its impact on people and related social systems.