Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment.
Multinational pharmaceutical companies neglect the diseases of the tropics, not because the science is impossible but because there is, in the cold economics of the drugs companies, no market.
There is, of course, a market in the sense that there is a need: But there is no market in the sense that, unlike Viagra, medicines for leishmaniasis are needed by poor people in poor countries. Pharmaceutical companies judge that they would not get sufficient return on research investment, so why, they ask, should we bother?
For the large companies, they feel their investment into research and development would suffer if other companies then simply copy what they produce. Yet, a lot of the base science and research that the large companies have benefited from has been publicly funded—through university programs, government subsidized research, and other health programs.
Privatizing such profits may be acceptable to a certain degree. However, Jamie Love, an AIDS activist, denies that the pharmaceuticals even own the rights to the drugs in the first place. He points out that many of the anti-retroviral drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS today stem from the government-funded cancer drug research of the s.
The rights to government-created innovations were sold to pharmaceutical companies at low prices … guaranteeing companies like Bristol-Myers Squibb huge returns on investment.
Jamie LoveSalon. Economist and director of the Third World NetworkMartin Khor writes, Just as controversial [as patenting living organisms], or even more so, are patents and patent applications relating to plants that have traditionally been used for medicinal and other purposes e.
Many medicines are derived from or based on biochemical compounds originating from plants and biodiversity in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Much of the knowledge of the use of plants for medical purposes resides with indigenous peoples and local communities. Scientists and companies from developed countries have been charged with biopiracy when they appropriate the plants or their compounds from the forests as well as the traditional knowledge of the community healers, since patents are often applied for the materials and the knowledge.
Drummond Rennie, from the Journal of the American Medical Associationnoted in a television documentary that Pharmaceuticals, they are a commodity. But they are not just a commodity. And that gives them altogether a deeper significance.
Indeed, I believe that they often forget it completely.
Drummond Rennie, transcribed from Dying for Drugs, Channel 4, UK, April 27, However, critics are pointing out that as well as saving lives, they are also taking lives from the poor, especially in the developing world, where, through rich country governments, they have lobbied for policies that will help ensure that their patents are recognized in most countries, thus extending those monopolies on their drugs.
Writer and broadcaster, John Madeley, summarizes a number of concerns raised over the years: Making use of advertising that is inexpensive in comparison to what they pay in industrialized countries, the drug TNCs [Transnational Corporations] use the most persuasive, not to say unethical, methods to persuade the poor to buy their wares.
Extravagant claims are made that would be outlawed in the Western countries. A survey, in the Annals of Internal Medicine found that 62 per cent of the pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals were either grossly misleading or downright inaccurate.Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality.
Sep 20, · 6 factors shaping the global economy in 23 Dec will be a challenging and difficult year for the global economy. It is a recovery without a real upturn in the business cycle, threatened by a range of factors. One: the year of political populism?
Social Determinants of Health: How Social and Economic Factors Affect Health 3 While the previous scenario is fictional, unfortunately it is all too plausible. Social Determinants of Health: How Social and Economic Factors Affect Health 3 While the previous scenario is fictional, unfortunately it is all too plausible.
individual factors can also be patterned by the social and physical environment. the Global Burden of Disease Study. Epidemiology. Vol. 10, No.
5, pp , San Francisco Department of Public Health 26 Factors Influencing Health)) /-. Global factors such as poverty, access to health care, patent issues at the world trade organization (WTO) and the power of pharmaceutical companies are major problems.
a deeper issue is that this has often driven much needed resources away from preventative healthcare to treatment, when investment in preventative care could be a lot more.